District 20, 8,000 Years Old Cheshmeh Ali
District 20 of Tehran is a location embracing the ancient Rey territory. It is one of the southernmost districts of Tehran and is among historical-religious locations. Tourists who come to Iran should not miss visiting the historical “Rey Bastan” (Ancient Rey) township. Rey indicates the ancient profile of Tehran, a place which would surprise any viewer.
Centuries before the main nucleus of Tehran was formed in the hands of Qajar kings, Rey had its own civilization and pattern of urbanism. It enjoys the civilization record of red pottery, a matter that most probably few tourists are aware of. The city of Rey has also been influential in the contemporary era. In the Constitutional period it was an important seat in founding democracy and constitutional rule.
District 20 is located in the southern part of Tehran and the city of Rey is situated there. This district is the southernmost region of Tehran Municipality and has five areas within the city limits and two areas outside the city. It has a total of 23 neighborhoods and 60 thousand households as well as seven areas.
The 8000-year record of Rey, buildings with historical value and shrine of Abdolazim (AS) has given specific and particular historical-religious traits to the district and has differentiated it from other districts in Tehran. Separation of Rey from Tehran which continued up to the recent years is among obvious features of the district. Status of the district in terms of green space is highly noticeable and is considered s a major consolidating element in the green space of Tehran.
Having suitable access to the central part and other main points of Tehran with regard to the Azadegan Highway in the north of the district and active subway stations are among other proper characteristics of the district.
District 20 of Tehran has been one of the influential districts in political affairs due to its political and social background. Many sits-in in the Constitution era which could have changed the historical path have taken place in this district. Today, the religious and social profile of the district is highly respected by the people.
This district has many cultural centers such as Vala’e Culture Center, Razi Culture House, Sheikh Sadouq Cultural-Artistic Complex, Dowlatabad Culture House, 13th Aban Culture House, Shahid Rahimi Science and Technology Complex, Rey Joint Culture House, Peyman Joint Culture House, and Me’raj Joint Culture House. Also, Islamic Azad University in District 20 is one of the well-known universities in Iran wherein many students are studying different courses.
Cultural and Historical Characteristics
Rey is located in the heart of District 20 of Tehran, and is one of the oldest cities in Iran as well as in the world. The date of the foundation of Rey goes back to the Aryans and it is said at that time Rey was the biggest cities of the Medians.
Rey means Royal city. It has been the capital city of Iran in a specific period. It has been called different names such as Raga, Ragha, Arshkiyeh, Raam Ardeshir, Um-al-Belad, Rey Shahr, Sheikh-ul Belad and Mohammadiyeh. Rey used to be called by one of these names at different times. According to Avesta, Rey was the 13th city which had been built in the world. Residence in the city, with regard to the works unearthed in Eshq Abad and Cheshmeh Ali, dates back to some 8000 years B.C.
The 'Mill' Hill is one of the historical monuments of the city of Rey. There are two narrations about formation of the giant and beautiful structure: one is that it was the fire temple of the Sassanid; and the second saying that it was the royal palace of Bahram Choobin.
Cheshmeh Ali complex with an antiquity of 8,000 years is one of the unprecedented sites in Iran which is known as the Red Pottery Civilization in the world. Besides this, there is Rey fortification which belongs to an indefinite period as well as historical collection of inscriptions of Fath Ali Shah.
The Toghrol Tower, Gabry Castle, the ancient Rashkan Castle grounds, the Tower of Khamooshan, Sassanid Crypt Graves, the large Sassanid-Islamic Cemetery, Bi Bi Shahrbanoo Tomb the pillars of which used to be the fire temple of the Sassanid and many other monuments could be cited in this district visiting which is would be an interesting journey to the Iranian history.
Imamzadeh Abdollah, Bi Bi Zobeideh and Ibn Babouyeh are among historical cemeteries in Iran wherein many Iranian celebrities such as Dehkhoda, the renowned Iranian scholar, world wrestling champion Gholamreza Takhti, Mirzadeh Eshqi the poet and many others have been buried. These cemeteries are among old cemeteries in Tehran which are now located within the city.