The first Comprehensive Plan for the urban development of Tehran was compiled in 1980’s. However, due to the problems caused by the excessive immigration during the 1990’s and 2000’s, and the consequences of the changes caused by the revolution, the change of the ruling system, and the war, Tehran has developed and been managed without a comprehensive and strategic plan until the late 1990’s. In 1996, a program entitled “Tehran 2001” was devised as Tehran’s development and management document, which had determined a part of the important policies and approaches for the management of the city. During the recent years, “The Outlook of Tehran in 2020 Document” and “The Comprehensive Plan of Tehran” have been compiled in a 25-year span and have become the bases for the short term and middle term projects of Tehran. In addition to these long term strategic plans, local and case plans have been or are being devised in the various fields of urban development and construction, as well. Reaching a city with the features of being sustainable, clean, green, with an easy flow of traffic, with a rich Iranian - Islamic identity, knowledge-based, and electronic has been emphasized in all of these strategic documents and plans. The model of “sustainable urban development” as the main model for the management of the Metropolis, and reaching the indices of “good urban governing” as the infrastructure for reforms in the management of the Metropolis have been accepted too.
The Ideals of the Prospect of the Long Term Development of the City of Tehran:
The Ideals of the Prospect of the Long Term Development of the City of Tehran: The Prospect of the Long Term Development of the City of Tehran, which is the desirable appearance of the city in the horizon of a plan and a promise for the sustainable development of Metropolis of Tehran and Iran's capital, is in harmony with the 20-year outlook of the country and it is based upon the following ideals:
1. Tehran; a city with the Iranian - Islamic genuineness and identity (a city that is organized for the growth and exaltation of humans and pure life).
2. Tehran; a knowledge-based, intelligent, and global city.
3. Tehran; a lush green and beautiful, fresh and lively city with diverse and vast public spaces.
4. Tehran; a safe city resistant to all damages and secure against the dangers and accidents.
5. Tehran; a sustainable and integrated city with a structure suitable for residence, work, and recreation.
6. Tehran; a city without traffic jams and with welfare and proper infrastructures, together with the lessening of inequalities, and the justly provision of all citizenship rights.
7. Tehran; a metropolis with national and international functions, with a modern economy, and the center of cultural, research, and political activities in the country, and at least one of the most important and superior three cities in the south-western region of Asia.
Guidelines for the Development of City of Tehran (17 Items)
1. Optimizing and preserving the limits and preventing the expansion of the city in any form;
2. Optimizing and preserving the limits of the capital (Tehran);
3. Promoting the role and status of the City of Tehran at the national, trans-national, and regional levels;
4. Social development and optimization of the housing of the population;
5. Economic development and flourishing of activities in the City of Tehran;
6. Improving the condition of the connection networks and the transportation system and traffic;
7. Protecting the environment;
8. Making it safe against natural disasters (earthquake, flood, ...);
9. Improving the system of crisis management and bettering the quality of the passive defence of the city of Tehran;
10. Providing the required water, developing and equipping water and sewage facilities of Tehran, and renovating the river banks and river beds;
11. Improving and bettering the physical condition and organization of City of Tehran (spatial organization of the city);
12. Improving the quality of the efficiency of the urban space through determining the land use method and optimizing constructional activities;
13. Active revival and preservation of the natural, cultural, and historical heritage of the City of Tehran;
14. Optimizing and improving the identity of the appearance and the urban landscape of Tehran in order to revive the Iranian - Islamic architecture and urban construction;
15. Expanding green, public, recreational, and tourist spaces;
16. Meeting the needs and improving the urban services of Tehran;
17. Improving, renovating, and rebuilding the old textures of City of Tehran.
In order to realize the Comprehensive Plan for the City of Tehran, the planners have taken into consideration the following:
1. Economic and urban management policies
2. Legal system and constructional modifications (related to the government and parliament)
3. Conditions for realization (related to the Judiciary System)
4. Among the most important strategic projects of Tehran, which have been carried out or are being carried out, mention can be made of the following:
5. Comprehensive Cultural Plan of Tehran: In this plan, at first the cultural outlook of Tehran in the fields of "Tehran, a cultural city", "cultured citizen", and "management of culture" was devised. Then the qualitative objectives, methods, and cultural policies of the city management were compiled in the following ten sections:
6. Religious and national identity
7. Ceremonies and occasions
8. Quran and Islamic knowledge
9. Culture of self-sacrifice and martyrdom
10. Religious and training places
11. Free time
13. Book and book-reading
14. Visual identity
15. Information giving
Among the most important directing projects of Tehran, mention can be made of the following: (DEVELOPMENT TEAM TO REVISE)
1. Comprehensive Plan for Transportation and Traffic: It has been devised through the interaction between organizations and bodies related to this field. The main objective of the implementation of this plan is to improve and develop the public transportation network of Tehran by utilizing various systems including the metro, bus, taxi, monorail, and tram.
2. Comprehensive Plan to Reduce Air Pollution: In this plan, the methods and approaches to reduce the air pollution in Tehran are dealt with in a period of ten years. It is expected that at the end of this ten-year program, the pollutants of Tehran's air including the mobile and stationary sources decrease to the internationally accepted standards.
3. Comprehensive Plan of Zone Basing: This plan is being carried out in line with the realization of E-city and in line with the changing of the Municipality from a service organization to a social organization, and for decentralization purposes and giving more authority to the zone managers.
4. Rapid Response Plan 137: This plan is inspired by the revolutionary spirit of the urban managers and is carried out to rapidly respond to the visible problems and shortages of the city's neighborhoods. It aims at the realization of justice and the Municipality's objectives with regard to the expansion of service provision for the citizens.
5. Mechanization of Urban Services Plan: The objective of the implementation of this plan is to do the urban services activities such as collecting and transporting rubbish and cleaning the city's streets and lanes by using modern machinery and the up-to-date technology of the world.
6. Plan to Develop and Complete the Motorway Network: It includes studying and constructing freeways and highways needed by the City of Tehran according to the Comprehensive Plan in the three sections motorways, flyovers and bridges, and urban intelligent tunnels.
7. Comprehensive Plan for Digging and Building Common Service Canals: It deals with coordination in digging occasions among the various water, electricity, telecommunications, gas, and other sectors and creating common tunnels and canals for the urban facilities.
8. Plan to Develop and Complete Metro Lines: Expansion of metro lines in the Metropolis of Tehran according to the Comprehensive Plan for Transportation up to nine active lines with a length of more than 300 km
9. Plan to Mechanize the Pedestrian Bridges in the City: In order to facilitate the pedestrians crossing the motorways and streets, to make smooth the vehicles' movement in the streets, and to create more safety for the pedestrians and drivers.
10. Plan to Construct Canals to direct and Collect the Surface Water in the City of Tehran: Collecting water caused by rainfall and the surface waters of Tehran, and directing them downstream in order to control flood and the flooding of the streets, and recycling the collected water for industrial and agricultural uses.
11. Plan to Renovate Old Textures: Renovating, securing, and strengthening old and dense neighborhoods and buildings of the city and improving the quality of the houses of the citizens living in poor neighborhoods, and reviving and organizing the old neighborhoods of the city.
12. Comprehensive Plan for Crisis Management: Considering the position of Tehran on the faults lines which are prone to earthquakes and other natural conditions, City of Tehran is always exposed to danger and crisis. In order to reduce the impact of the natural disasters and crises, the Municipality of Tehran with the cooperation of the related organizations has compiled and adopted the said plan, and has formed a headquarters for its implementation. The duties and authorities of the crisis management headquarters in the districts are as follow: Carrying out the policies of the Crisis Management Headquarters and Organization of the City of Tehran; providing district plans for the crisis management in the framework of the general plan for the crisis management of the City of Tehran and sending one copy of it to the headquarters to be studied and adopted; becoming prepared and doing the necessary actions to deal with the crisis at the district level before and after the occurrence of the crisis respectively and in accordance with the adopted plans and related regulations; coordinating and supervising activities of the crisis management headquarters of the districts; taking preventive measures (before, at the time, and after the occurrence of the crisis); acting and being prepared at the municipality district level in cooperation with the headquarters of the municipality districts and the regional units of the organizations related to the crisis management of the City of Tehran; informing the headquarters of the critical situation in the district and cooperating with the headquarters in this regard; coordinating the operating rescue teams of the district and region with regard to searching, rescue, helping, emergency housing, and cleaning the roads operations. The crisis management headquarters of the district municipality holds sessions in normal conditions at least once every three months and holds extraordinary sessions on the suggestion of the head of the district municipality headquarters in critical conditions.
13. Enabling of urban environment for the disabled: Making the urban spaces suitable for the use of the disabled and those who are corporeal and motional handicapped, in order to help the susceptible and weak urban groups
14. Renewal and Redecoration of the City's Historical Complexes: Repairing and reviving places related to the history and identity of the city, making the city beautiful and calm on the basis of the historical identity of the city's neighborhoods, and creating a serene atmosphere for the citizens.
15. Plan to promote walking and rebuilding pavements of the City: Building and expanding pavements, and repairing and bettering the important pavements of the city in order to encourage people to walk more and to use private cars less.
16. Renovation of Abbas Abad Hills: The aim of this plan is to develop and utilize the plots of land in Abbas Abad of Tehran as one of the most important opportunities for the sustainable development of City of Tehran in harmony with the environmental principles and the cultural needs of the city. This area is located in the best central and northern place of the city, and it is going to have cultural, tourism, and environmental uses in the framework of this plan.