The urban management model of every country is correlated to its political rule, and such a model influences the management levels and their range of authority. The concept of urban management is more extensive than its combinational aspects. It can be argued that in a broad definition, the term urban management is used about local government or the duties of the municipalities.
Compared to other social systems and phenomena, metropolises are more complicated, and due to their numerous and intricate dimensions, layers, and levels, their management requires special tools, techniques, skills, and knowledge. That is why today the words and terms such as local government, local democracy, urban management, municipality, and the city council or city parliament are being used extensively all over the world, and have entered the political literature. Now the governments are trying to create a balance in their relations with local governments for the benefit of the citizens.
As was mentioned before, the model for the urban management of Tehran has been obtained from the model for the political management of the country. Tehran is a metropolis that is becoming global. The management of the Metropolis of Tehran is formed by the interaction between the following:
1. The central government including the Leader, the State, the Parliament, and the Judiciary System;
2. The citizens;
3. The Islamic City Council;
4. The Municipality.
The government makes policies, does planning at the national level, and allocates resources to administrative bodies and different provinces. However, the Municipality of Tehran – as the largest public and non-governmental body – does not benefit from governmental resources and it is financed by local tolls and people's participation. It benefits from the public budget only in a small part of the public transportation sector, and this amount is very meagre and little compared with other monetary resources of the municipality.
Majlis [Parliament] devises laws at the national level, and monitors the governmental departments' performance and how well the laws and regulations are observed. Many of the main current laws concerning the governance of national and local (cities) affairs have been adopted by the parliament. The Judiciary System deals with those who violate the laws and regulations, sees to the citizens' complaints, and restores their right. The citizens take part at the national level by electing the President and the Members of Parliament and at the local level by electing members of the City Council and the Aides to District Councils. The citizens are also the main providers of the municipality's monetary resources and the main consumers of urban services.
The relationship between the central government, citizens, and the
Local government in the Islamic Republic of Iran
The Ministry of Interior is a part of the government, which according to the law has the duty to monitor the performance of the Islamic councils of the cities and the municipalities, to supervise the formation process and function of Tehran's Islamic City Council, and to control through governorate offices of cities and provinces what the city councils adopt so that their decisions would not be in contradiction with the councils' law and other laws of the country. The Islamic City Council of Tehran chooses the Mayor of Tehran and introduces him or her to the Minister of Interior. The Mayor starts his or her work after the endorsement of the Minister of Interior. The Islamic City Council can adopt laws and impose local levies at the city level, and it monitors all plans and actions of the municipality through the approval of the annual budget and its monetary reports. The City Council can also interpellate and oust the Mayor according to the laws.
The relation between the government, the Islamic City Council, and the Municipality of Tehran is shown in the following diagram.
Organizational Structure of Municipality of Tehran
The Mayor of Tehran is the head of the Municipality of Tehran. The Mayor of Tehran is usually chosen from among the managers with successful managerial experience at the large scale national level and related to social, economic, and urban fields, and politically close to the viewpoints of the majority of the City Council members, by their vote in an open session for a period of four years, and is then introduced to the Minister of Interior for his endorsement, and after his approval, the Mayor actually starts his work. However, the City Council has the right to interpellate and oust the Mayor before the termination of the four-year period.
Organizational Structure of Municipality of Tehran
The Mayor is in general charge of managing the municipality’s affairs according to the vote of the City Council, and is duty bound to manage the Municipality of Tehran according to the laws, regulations, and the orders of the City Council. He is empowered sufficiently in carrying out the order of the City Council. From the protocols aspect, the Mayor is considered the highest ranking local official of the city, and takes parts in occasions and ceremonies as the representative of Tehrani citizens.
The Mayor must, upon the City Council’s request, take part in the sessions of the City Council. The Mayor is entitled to request that the City Council hold extraordinary or closed sessions. The status of the Mayor of the capital is equal to that of the Ministers, and his deputies hold an equal status to that of the Vice Ministers in political ceremonies. The Mayor of the capital also takes part in the sessions of the Cabinet.
In order to manage the city’s affairs, the Mayor of Tehran benefits from the cooperation of nine deputies in a direct manner, some specialised advisors, 22 district mayors, and some other high ranking managers.
The Mayors’ advisors help to make decisions at the large scale urban management, or are being consulted by the Mayor on the following issues:
• Administrative issues;
• Urban planning, properties, complexes, and townships’ issues;
• Information technology issues;
• Agricultural products and green spaces issues;
• Social affairs and directional issues;
• Youth issues;
• Veterans of the Islamic Revolution issues;
• Environmental and sustainable development issues;
• Urban development and studies issues;
• Sports issues;
• Parliament issues;
• Health issues;
• Transportation and traffic issues.
In order to facilitate the management and to fairly distribute chances and facilities throughout the city, Metropolis of Tehran has been divided into 22 urban districts. The districts of the Municipality are defined as the connecting link between the citizens and the Municipality and as service providing units of the Municipality for the people. Each district has a structure similar to the general structure of the Municipality of Tehran but on a smaller scale. The district municipality is managed by the district mayor who has been appointed by the Mayor of Tehran and is directly accountable to the Mayor of Tehran. Each district has been geographically divided into some urban zones. The number of zones in every district depends on the area of that district. Neighbourhoods are inside the zones. On the large scale policy of the Municipality, strengthening the structure of the zone municipality and giving more extensive authority to it has an important place. This policy has been adopted in order to localise services, to distribute more justly the resources and facilities, and to promote the efficiency of the Municipality of Tehran.
Tehran has 22 districts, each of which is administered by their own district mayors who report to the mayor of metropolitan Tehran. Districts carry out administrative work in their areas.
||Bahonar St, Qods Sq, Shemiran
||22708323 – 22709308
||Shahrdari Blvd, SaadatAbaad
||Shariati Ave , between Hemmat highway and Mirdamad St
||Corner of Ferdosi St, Hangam St, Resalat Sq
||Kashani Blvd, 2nd Sadeghiye Sq
||North Sohrevardi, St, Ghandi Sq
||Opposit Nabi Mosque, Nabovat Sq, Narmak
||OstadMoein St, Azadi St
||Near ZamZam factory, Azadi St
||Mojahedin Islam St, Shohada Sq
||Imam Ali Exp way, Damavand St
||Shekoofeh St, Piroozi St
||Basij Sq, Khavaran St, Khorasan Sq
||Bahman Sq, Near Bahman Cultural Center
||After Yaftabaad Cross, Saeedi Exp way
||Miaad Blvd, Miaad St, Khaniabaadno
||Shahrdari St, Rajaee St
||Paraolympic Sq, Tehransar
||North of Shahid Bagheri Town , Hemmat Highway - west